Mango – Varieties, production, seasons, and economic importance
Mango(Mangifera Indica) is the country’s most commercially grown fruit crop. It is known as the King of fruits. The mango is thought to have originated in the Indo-Burma region and spread across South America by the Spanish explorers. There are around 1500 varieties of mango in the world. However, India has the richest varieties of mango cultivars. India is the world’s leading mango-producing country contributing to 50% of the world’s mango production. Mangoes are quite popular due to their enormous varieties, nutritional content, exquisite taste, and extraordinary flavor. Mangoes are now grown in tropical and subtropical regions. Mangoes are extensively cultivated in Asia, Africa, and the tropical and subtropical Americas.
Varieties of Mango in India
There are enormous varieties of mango available in India. However, Alphonso and Totapuri mangoes are the known varieties of mango in India. Alphonso and Totapuri are preferred by fruit processing industries because of the aroma, taste, and flavor of the pulp. The Indian mangoes are named as per the place of origin, their shape, taste, and various other characteristics. There are 1000 varieties of mango grown in India, However, only a few varieties are commercially cultivated. Every variety has its taste, aroma, and flavor. Most of the mango varieties in India have specific eco-geographical requirements for better growth and yield. The northern and eastern varieties of mango are usually late compared to the western and southern varieties. Some of the mango varieties grow throughout the year in the southern states of India.
Commercial varieties of mango grown in India
Alphonso: Alphonso is the leading commercial variety of mango cultivated in the Konkan region of Maharashtra. Alphonso has a delicate taste, aroma, and strong flavor. This variety is exported as fresh fruit and also used in processing industries because of its sweetness.
Totapuri: Totapuri is a commercial variety of mango grown in south India. It serves as a table variety and is also preferred by mango pulp manufacturers in India because of its higher pulp content. This fruit size is medium to large and it is a mid-season variety.
Kesar: Kesar is the leading variety of mango cultivated in Gujarat. This variety is known for its bright yellow-colored pulp. After Alphonso, Kesar is the expensive variety. It is now used in fruit processing industries because of its sweetness and texture.
Neelam: Neelam is a commercial variety of Mango indigenous to Tamilnadu. Because of its high keeping quality, this variety of mango is an excellent choice for shipping to remote locations. After totapuri, Neelam is the third most processed variety of mango in Tamilnadu next to Alphonso, Totapuri, and Kesar variety.
Sindhoora: Sindhura is a popular variety of mango in Tamilnadu that has attractive reds and greens within the golden color. Because of its exceptional sweet flavor, it is known as honey mango. Owing to its sweet nature like Alphonso and totapuri, it is widely used in the confectionery industry to make jellies, jams, and preservatives.
Raspuri: This variety of mango is commonly cultivated in southern India, particularly in Karnataka. Raspuri mangoes are mostly produced and consumed in the Mysore district. Like Totapuri and Alphonso mangoes, raspuri is used in the manufacturing of Icecreams, confectioneries, and in other processed foods. A fully ripe raspuri mango can be as sweet as the Alphonso mangoes.
Banganapalli: Banganapalli is an early-season variety in India. It is the most important commercial variety in Andhra Pradesh. The fruits are large in size and golden yellow. The pulp is fiberless, hard with a sweet taste. This variety has a longer shelf life.
Dashehari: This type takes its name from the village of Dashehari, which is located near Lucknow. It is a popular commercial variety in north India and one of our country’s best varieties. The fruit is small to medium in size, oblong, oblique in shape, and yellow in color. The fruit quality is outstanding, and the keeping quality is satisfactory.
Commercial variety of mangoes in India – Region wise
|State||Variety of mangoes in India|
|Andhra Pradesh||Banganapalli, Suvarnarekha, Neelam and Totapuri|
|Bihar||Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Fazli, Gulabkhas, Kishen Bhog, Himsagar, Zardalu and Langra|
|Gujarat||Kesar, Alphonso, Rajapuri, Jamadar, Totapuri, Neelam, Dashehari and Langra|
|Haryana||Chausa, Dashehari, Langra and Fazli|
|Himachal Pradesh||Chausa, Dashehari and Langra|
|Karnataka||Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli, Pairi, Neelam, and Mulgoa|
|Madhya Pradesh||Alphonso, Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fazli, Langra, and Neelam|
|Maharashtra||Alphonso, Kesar, and Pairi|
|Punjab||Chausa, Dashehari and Malda|
|Rajasthan||Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, and Langra|
|Tamil Nadu||Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli, and Neelum|
|Uttar Pradesh||Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, and Langra|
|West Bengal||Fazli, Gulabkhas, Himsagar, Kishen Bhog, Langra, and Bombay Green|
Mango production in India
India is the largest producer of Mangoes in the world followed by Indonesia and China. Approximately, India produces 25 million metric tons of mango every year that contributes to more than 45% of the world’s mango production. Mangoes have become well established as both fresh fruit and processed products in the global market in recent years. The second and third largest sources of mangoes are Indonesia and China that contribute 5% and 4% of the world’s mango production. Thailand is a leading exporter of mango with a market share of 18% followed by Mexico and brazil.
Mango is an important crop in the tropical regions throughout Mango production in the world continues to increase in Asia due to the favorable climatic conditions As per the 2019 data, Indonesia produces 3.29M tons of mango with a 6% growth every year followed by China and Mexico. Mexico shows more than 9% growth in production and is expected to rise in the coming years.
The major mango-growing states are Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, and Gujarat. Although mango is adapted to grow in all regions, Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of mango in India with a share of 23.47% and the highest productivity. An increasing trend has been observed in the production of mango in India with a quantity of 25M tonnes and has a growth rate of 39% in the last five years. The area and production of mango in India have been continuously growing over the years. The area under mango cultivation in India was around 1077 hectares during the year 1991-92. The area reached up to 2516 hectares during 2013-14 and recorded 2262 in the year 2016-17. Though the production area is increasing, mango production has been fluctuating. There was a drop in mango production in the year 2009-10 and there was a continuous increase in the production during 2016-17. From 1991-2015, the area under mango cultivation increased by 109% while the production increased by 125%. Uttar Pradesh is the largest mango-producing state, while Andhra Pradesh is the leading state in area, accounting for 14.72% of the total mango area in the country. Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Bihar, Maharashtra, Telangana, West Bengal are the other prominent states cultivating mango significantly and commercially.
Mango production In India state wise during 2016-17
State-wise Area (‘000 ha), Production (‘000 MT) and Productivity (MT/ha) of Mango
Mango season In India
The peak mango season in India is from April-July in the southwest and moves towards the northeast in June-July. The flowering starts in the month of December-January in the south and it lasts till February. Untimely rains and weather changes could affect the flowering and may delay the drop. On average, a mango tree can produce 20-200kgs of mango per harvest season. Because of this reason, the mango yield is difficult to forecast.
Mango grows well in tropical and subtropical areas. It grows well in nearly all sections of the country but cannot be farmed commercially beyond 600 meters. It cannot withstand prolonged freezing, especially if the tree is young. Heavy temperatures alone are not harmful to mango trees, but when combined with low humidity and high winds, they have a negative impact. From the below chart it is clear that most of the mango varieties In North India belong to the late season and midseason in the west and south India.
Economic Importance of mango
Mango is a nutritious food and has huge health benefits. Mango is also preferred in various food processing industries because of its nutritional value. Mango is a rich source of Vitamin A and Vitamin C. A good mango variety contains 20% of total soluble sugars. Mango fruit has an acidic level ranging from 0.2 to 0.5% and protein content of about 1%.
Mango is used in the manufacturing of traditional products and also used in fruit processing industries. Since the fruit processing industries see rapid growth, the demand for fruit-based drinks and beverages has increased over the past few years. Mango pulp is primarily used in the manufacturing of smoothies, fruit drinks, and other mango-based products. Mango puree is a key ingredient in the dairy industry and is used in the manufacturing of milkshakes, mango-flavored yogurts, and Icecreams. Alphonso mango pulp has a great aroma, pleasant taste, and sweetness. It is widely used in the beverage industry and confectioneries that include Puddings, cakes, and desserts.