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Mango varieties in India, production, and economic importance

There are 1500¬†mango varieties in India, including 1000¬†commercial varieties. India has the widest¬†varieties of mango¬†cultivars. Mango(Mangifera Indica) is the country’s most¬†commercially¬†grown fruit crop. It is known as the King of fruits. The Mango is thought to have originated in the Indo-Burma region and spread across South America by the Spanish explorers. India is the¬†world’s largest producer, producing 20 million tonnes of Mango each year.¬†Mango production in India¬†has increased yearly due to the increasing plantation areas. India contributes to 50% of the total world’s¬†mango production. Uttar Pradesh is India’s¬†largest Mango producing state, producing¬†4 million tonnes¬†of Mango every year.¬†

Mango varieties in India

There are around 1000¬†varieties of mangoes in India, grown commercially. Each type is known for its flavour and taste. However, Alphonso is India’s sweetest and best¬†variety of mangoes¬†because of its higher brix content, aroma and flavour.¬†Fruit processing industries for manufacturing mango pulp prefer Alphonso and Totapuri.¬†Indian mango varieties¬†are named per the place of origin, shape, taste, and other characteristics.

Most of the mango varieties in India have specific eco-geographical requirements for better growth and yield. The northern and eastern varieties of mangoes in India are usually late compared to the western and southern types. Some of the mango varieties In India grow throughout the year in the southern states. Herewith, We have listed the important mango varieties in India that are developed for processed products and the table variety. 

Alphonso: Alphonso is one of the leading mango varieties in India, known for its puree and sweetness. Alphonso is one of the premium varieties of Mango cultivated in India. Alphonso has a delicate taste, aroma, and strong flavour. This variety is exported as fresh fruit and used in processing industries because of its higher sweet content. Alphonso mango is the tastiest Mango in the world. It is produced in the Ratnagiri region of Maharashtra. 

Totapuri: Totapuri is a commercial variety of Mango grown in south India, especially in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. It serves as a table variety and is also preferred by mango pulp manufacturers in India because of its higher content. This fruit size is medium to large and has a mid-season variety. This variety of mangoes is mostly used in manufacturing because of its higher pulp content.

Kesar:¬†‘Gir Kesar’ also known as the Kesar, is cultivated in the foothills of Girnar in Gujarat.¬†This variety of mangoes in India¬†is known for its bright yellow-coloured pulp. After Alphonso, Kesar is the most expensive variety. This¬†mango variety¬†was given a GI tag in the year 2011. It is now used in¬†fruit processing industries¬†because of its sweetness and texture. It is the most preferred¬†variety of mangoes¬†in processing industries.

Neelam: Neelam is a commercial variety of Mango indigenous to Tamilnadu. Because of its high keeping quality, this variety of mangoes is an excellent choice for shipping to remote locations. After totapuri, Neelam is the third most processed variety of mangoes in Tamilnadu, next to Alphonso, Totapuri, and Kesar varieties.

Sindhoora: Sindhura is a popular variety of mangoes in Tamilnadu that has attractive reds and greens within the golden colour. Because of its exceptional sweet flavour, it is known as honey mango. Owing to its sweet nature, like Alphonso and totapuri, it is widely used in the confectionery industry to make jellies, jams, and preservatives.

Raspuri: This variety of mangoes is commonly cultivated in southern India, particularly in Karnataka. Raspuri mangoes are mostly produced and consumed in the Mysore district. Like Totapuri and Alphonso mangoes, raspuri is used in the manufacturing of Icecreams, confectioneries, and other processed foods. A fully ripe raspuri mango can be as sweet as the Alphonso mango. 

Banganapalli: Banganapalli is an early-season variety in India. It is the most important commercial variety in Andhra Pradesh. The fruits are large in size and golden yellow. The pulp is fiberless and hard with a sweet taste. This variety has a longer shelf life.

Dashehari: This type takes its name from the village of Dashehari near Lucknow. It is a popular commercial variety in north India and one of our country’s best. The fruit is small to medium, oblong, oblique in shape, and yellow in colour. The fruit quality is outstanding, and the keeping quality is satisfactory.

Commercial variety of mangoes in India 

There are wide commercial varieties of mango in India. Hybrid commercial mango varieties in India are becoming popular because of their unique taste. Some known hybrid commercial mango varieties in India are Amrapali, Mallika, and Ambika. Amrapali is a cross between Neelum and Dashehari. These commercial hybrid mango varieties in India are used only for table purposes. They are not used for processing. Alphonso, Totapuri and Kesar are the Indian mango varieties mostly used for processing. Sometimes the processor prefers Sindhura, Neelam, and Raspuri types based on the customer’s request. 

RegionCommercial varieties of mango in India
Andhra PradeshBanganapalli, Suvarnarekha, Neelam and Totapuri
GujaratKesar, Alphonso, Rajapuri, Jamadar, Totapuri, Neelum, Dashehari and Langra
BiharBombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Fazli, Gulabkhas, Kishen Bhog, Himsagar, Zardalu and Langra
Himachal PradeshChausa, Dashehari and Langra
Madhya PradeshAlphonso, Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fazli, Langra and Neelum
KarnatakaAlphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli, Pairi, Neelum and Mulgoa
MaharashtraAlphonso, Kesar and Pairi
PunjabChausa, Dashehari and Malda
RajasthanBombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra
Tamil NaduAlphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli and Neelum
Uttar PradeshBombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra
West BengalFazli, Gulabkhas, Himsagar, Kishenbhog, Langra and Bombay Green
HaryanaChausa, Dashehari, Langra and Fazli
Commercial Varieties of Mango In India

Mango Production In India

The top 10 mango producing states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Maharashtra, and Jharkhand.  Although mango is adapted to grow in all regions, Uttar Pradesh leads the way in mango production with a 23.4% share and the highest productivity. India is also a major supplier of fresh mangoes around the globe. Srinivaspur in the Kolar district of Karnataka, Nuzvid in Andhra Pradesh, and Krishnagiri in Tamil Nadu are named the mango cities in India.

Krishnagiri district in Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of mangoes in India. This district produces 30000 tonnes of mangoes annually. 20% of mango produced here is Totapuri and Alphonso. These varieties are processed by fruit pulp manufacturers to produce value-added products.

An increasing trend has been observed in the¬†production of mango in India¬†with a quantity of 25M tonnes and has a growth rate of 39% in the last five years. The area and¬†production of mango in India¬†have been continuously growing over the years. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Government of India, the total area under mango cultivation in the country is over 2 million hectares, and the annual production is around 22 million tonnes Though the production area is increasing, mango production has been fluctuating. The fluctuation is due to crop failure. As per the mango crop report 2022, the yield was less compared to previous years.There was a drop in mango production in the year 2009-10 and there was a continuous increase in production during 2016-17. From 1991-to 2015, the area under mango cultivation increased by 109% while the production increased by 125%. Uttar Pradesh is the¬†largest mango-producing state, while Andhra Pradesh is the leading state in area, accounting for 14.72% of the total mango area in the country. Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Bihar, Maharashtra, Telangana, and West Bengal are the other prominent states that cultivate mango significantly and commercially.

Mango production In India state wise during 2016-17

State-wise Area (‚Äė000 ha), Production (‚Äė000 MT) and Productivity (MT/ha) of Mango

StatesAREAProductionProductivity
UTTAR PRADESH264.934540.2317.1
ANDHRA PRADESH332.973163.329.5
KARNATAKA192.611829.219.5
TELANGANA180.621681.69.3
BIHAR150.641479.589.8
GUJARAT153.181241.598.1
TAMIL NADU160.941156.997.2
WEST BENGAL97.93836.078.5
ODISHA199.3816.24.1
MAHARASHTRA157.07514.873.3
Mango production in India ‚Äď State wise

Mango production in India State wise 2021

    State Production volume       (In %)
Uttar Pradesh23%
Andhra Pradesh16%
Karnataka9%
Telangana8%
Bihar6%
Tamilnadu 5%
West Bengal4.5%
Odisha4%
Maharashtra2%
Mango production in India state wise ‚Äď 2021

Mango Production in the world

India is the largest producer of Mangoes in the world, followed by Indonesia and China. India produces 25 million metric tons of mango annually, contributing to over 45% of the world’s mango production. Mangoes have become well established, as have fresh fruit and processed products in the global market in recent years. The second and third largest sources of mangoes are Indonesia and China, which contribute 5% and 4% of the world’s mango production. Thailand is a leading mango exporter, with a market share of 18%, followed by Mexico and brazil. 

Mango is an important crop in tropical regions. Mango production worldwide continues to increase in Asia due to favourable climatic conditions. As per the 2019 data, Indonesia produces 3.29M tons of mango, with a 6% growth yearly, followed by China and Mexico. Mexico shows more than 9% growth in production and is expected to rise in the coming years. 

Economic Importance of mango

Mango is a nutritious food and has huge health benefits. Mango is also preferred in various food processing industries because of its nutritional value. Mango is a rich source of Vitamin A and Vitamin C. A good mango variety contains 20% of total soluble sugars. Mango fruit has an acidic level ranging from 0.2 to 0.5% and a protein content of about 1%.

Mango is used in the manufacturing of traditional products and also used in fruit processing industries. Since the fruit processing industries have grown rapidly, fruit-based drinks and beverages have increased over the past few years. Mango pulp primarily manufactures smoothies, fruit drinks, and other mango-based products. Mango puree is a key ingredient in the dairy industry and is used in manufacturing milkshakes, mango-flavoured yoghurts, and Icecreams. Alphonso mango pulp has a great aroma, pleasant taste, and sweetness. It is widely used in the beverage industry and confectioneries, including Puddings, cakes, and desserts.

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