Mango – Varieties in India, production, and economic importance
Mango(Mangifera Indica) is the country’s most commercially grown fruit crop. It is known as the King of fruits. The mango is thought to have originated in the Indo-Burma region and spread across South America by the Spanish explorers. There are 1500 varieties of mango In India including 1000 commercial varieties. India has the richest varieties of mango cultivars. India is the world’s largest producer, producing 20 million tonnes of mango each year. India contributes to 50% of the total world’s mango production. Uttar Pradesh is the largest mango producing state in India that produces 4million tonnes of mango every year.
Varieties of Mango in India
There are around 1000 varieties of mango in India, grown commercially. Each variety is known for its flavour and taste. However, Alphonso is the sweetest and best variety of mango in India because of its higher brix content, aroma and flavour. Alphonso and Totapuri are preferred by fruit processing industries for manufacturing mango pulp. Indian mangoes are named as per the place of origin, their shape, taste, and various other characteristics.
Most of the mango varieties in India have specific eco-geographical requirements for better growth and yield. The northern and eastern varieties of mango in India are usually late compared to the western and southern varieties. Some of the mango varieties In India grow throughout the year in the southern states.
Commercial varieties of mango in India
Alphonso: Alphonso is the leading commercial variety of mango cultivated in the Konkan region of Maharashtra. Alphonso has a delicate taste, aroma, and strong flavor. This variety is exported as fresh fruit and also used in processing industries because of its sweetness.
Totapuri: Totapuri is a commercial variety of mango grown in south India. It serves as a table variety and is also preferred by mango pulp manufacturers in India because of its higher pulp content. This fruit size is medium to large and it is a mid-season variety.
Kesar: Kesar is the leading variety of mango cultivated in Gujarat. This variety is known for its bright yellow-colored pulp. After Alphonso, Kesar is the expensive variety. It is now used in fruit processing industries because of its sweetness and texture.
Neelam: Neelam is a commercial variety of Mango indigenous to Tamilnadu. Because of its high keeping quality, this variety of mango is an excellent choice for shipping to remote locations. After totapuri, Neelam is the third most processed variety of mango in Tamilnadu next to Alphonso, Totapuri, and Kesar variety.
Sindhoora: Sindhura is a popular variety of mango in Tamilnadu that has attractive reds and greens within the golden color. Because of its exceptional sweet flavor, it is known as honey mango. Owing to its sweet nature like Alphonso and totapuri, it is widely used in the confectionery industry to make jellies, jams, and preservatives.
Raspuri: This variety of mango is commonly cultivated in southern India, particularly in Karnataka. Raspuri mangoes are mostly produced and consumed in the Mysore district. Like Totapuri and Alphonso mangoes, raspuri is used in the manufacturing of Icecreams, confectioneries, and in other processed foods. A fully ripe raspuri mango can be as sweet as the Alphonso mangoes.
Banganapalli: Banganapalli is an early-season variety in India. It is the most important commercial variety in Andhra Pradesh. The fruits are large in size and golden yellow. The pulp is fiberless, hard with a sweet taste. This variety has a longer shelf life.
Dashehari: This type takes its name from the village of Dashehari, which is located near Lucknow. It is a popular commercial variety in north India and one of our country’s best varieties. The fruit is small to medium in size, oblong, oblique in shape, and yellow in color. The fruit quality is outstanding, and the keeping quality is satisfactory.
Commercial variety of mangoes in India
|Andhra Pradesh||Banganapalli, Suvarnarekha, Neelam and Totapuri|
|Gujarat||Kesar, Alphonso, Rajapuri, Jamadar, Totapuri, Neelum, Dashehari and Langra|
|Bihar||Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Fazli, Gulabkhas, Kishen Bhog, Himsagar, Zardalu and Langra|
|Himachal Pradesh||Chausa, Dashehari and Langra|
|Madhya Pradesh||Alphonso, Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fazli, Langra and Neelum|
|Karnataka||Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli, Pairi, Neelum and Mulgoa|
|Maharashtra||Alphonso, Kesar and Pairi|
|Punjab||Chausa, Dashehari and Malda|
|Rajasthan||Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra|
|Tamil Nadu||Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli and Neelum|
|Uttar Pradesh||Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra|
|West Bengal||Fazli, Gulabkhas, Himsagar, Kishenbhog, Langra and Bombay Green|
|Haryana||Chausa, Dashehari, Langra and Fazli|
Mango Production In India and the world
The top 10 mango producing states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Maharashtra, and Jharkhand. Although mango is adapted to grow in all regions, Uttar Pradesh leads the way in mango production with a 23.4% share and highest productivity. India is also a major supplier of fresh mangoes around the globe.
An increasing trend has been observed in the production of mango in India with a quantity of 25M tonnes and has a growth rate of 39% in the last five years. The area and production of mango in India have been continuously growing over the years. The area under mango cultivation in India was around 1077 hectares during the year 1991-92. The area reached up to 2516 hectares during 2013-14 and recorded 2262 in the year 2016-17. Though the production area is increasing, mango production has been fluctuating. There was a drop in mango production in the year 2009-10 and there was a continuous increase in the production during 2016-17. From 1991-2015, the area under mango cultivation increased by 109% while the production increased by 125%. Uttar Pradesh is the largest mango-producing state, while Andhra Pradesh is the leading state in area, accounting for 14.72% of the total mango area in the country. Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Bihar, Maharashtra, Telangana, West Bengal are the other prominent states cultivating mango significantly and commercially.
Mango production in India State wise
State-wise Area (‘000 ha), Production (‘000 MT) and Productivity (MT/ha) of Mango
Mango Production in the world
India is the largest producer of Mangoes in the world followed by Indonesia and China. Approximately, India produces 25 million metric tons of mango every year contributing to more than 45% of the world’s mango production. Mangoes have become well established as have fresh fruit and processed products in the global market in recent years. The second and third largest sources of mangoes are Indonesia and China that contribute 5% and 4% of the world’s mango production. Thailand is a leading exporter of mango with a market share of 18% followed by Mexico and brazil.
Mango is an important crop in the tropical regions throughout Mango production in the world continues to increase in Asia due to the favourable climatic conditions As per the 2019 data, Indonesia produces 3.29M tons of mango with a 6% growth every year followed by China and Mexico. Mexico shows more than 9% growth in production and is expected to rise in the coming years.
Economic Importance of mango
Mango is a nutritious food and has huge health benefits. Mango is also preferred in various food processing industries because of its nutritional value. Mango is a rich source of Vitamin A and Vitamin C. A good mango variety contains 20% of total soluble sugars. Mango fruit has an acidic level ranging from 0.2 to 0.5% and protein content of about 1%.
Mango is used in the manufacturing of traditional products and also used in fruit processing industries. Since the fruit processing industries see rapid growth, fruit-based drinks and beverages have increased over the past few years. Mango pulp is primarily used in the manufacturing of smoothies, fruit drinks, and other mango-based products. Mango puree is a key ingredient in the dairy industry and is used in the manufacturing of milkshakes, mango-flavoured yoghurts, and Icecreams. Alphonso mango pulp has a great aroma, pleasant taste, and sweetness. It is widely used in the beverage industry and confectioneries that include Puddings, cakes, and desserts.